What are Car Tires Made From
Vehicle tires provide the much needed traction between the wheel rim and the road. It protects the rim and enables better vehicle performance while absorbing shock.
Pneumatic tires these days are made of synthetic rubber, natural rubber and other chemicals.
There is engineering involved in its making.
Someone may define a tire as a black donut that’s placed in the wheels to make the movement of the vehicle easier. Since the car travels on the wheels and its weight rests on the tires, they must be durable. The process of manufacturing this product is complex. Technologies are used to provide the best that today’s market can afford.
How they are Made?
The main ingredients are rubber and filler. There are different objectives to creating attire. Depending on that, the tire may be made to optimize performance, maximize traction on different kinds of surfaces, or achieve better rolling resistance. The final result can be obtained through selecting different types of rubber, and blending different amounts to get the outcome.
Most commonly, natural rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), polybutadiene rubber (BR), and butyl rubber (along with halogenated butyl rubber) are the four types of rubbers used.
The most commonly used ones for tread and sidewall compounds are the first three. The last one is used to line the inner, or the inside portion that holds the compressed air inside the tire.
Fillers are made of carbon black and silica. There are varieties in that. The type used will depend on the performance requirements.
Curing methods are used to create the tire and give it shape and elasticity.
Batch by batch the processing is done. Machines may produce about 200 kgs of rubber in less than three to five minutes. A sequence is followed when mixing is done. So is the temperature. To avoid higher temperatures that can damage the compound, the mixing operation is broken into two stages. The curative package is added only at the last stage of the mixing. Temperatures cannot exceed 100-110 degrees or the compound may scorch.
The mixture through several other processes once out of the mixer and is then dumped into a series of machines that form a continuous “slap”. This slap is moved to other areas for bead wire assembly
Tires are of many types – summer, winter and all-season. Tires are alphanumerically coded and moulded into the sidewall.
There are several processes and standards that comes up with standardization. Tires are rated. There is also the Rubber Manufacturer Association and Rubber Association of Canada. Different companies may have their own specifics but they are all required to meet the specified standards in order to pass ISO certification.
There may be M+S, M+T, BSW, WSW, OWL, RWL, VSB, etc and such other markings. Tires are made not just for heavy vehicles but also for smaller ones like bicycles and motorcycles. School children ride bicycles that also use tires. All of these are made up to certain standards.